What determines treatment satisfaction of patients with type 2 diabetes on insulin therapy? An observational study in eight European countries

Anne Meike Boels, Rimke C Vos, Tom G T Hermans, Nicolaas P A Zuithoff, Nicolle Müller, Kamlesh Khunti, Guy E H M Rutten,

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review


OBJECTIVE: Patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) on insulin therapy are less satisfied with their diabetes treatment than those on oral hypoglycaemic therapies or lifestyle advice only. Determinants of satisfaction in patients with T2DM on insulin therapy are not clearly known. The aim of this study was to determine the association of treatment satisfaction with demographic and clinical characteristics of patients with T2DM.

DESIGN: For this study we used data from the GUIDANCE (Guideline Adherence to Enhance Care) study, a cross-sectional study among 7597 patients with T2DM patients from Belgium, France, Germany, Ireland, Italy, Sweden, the Netherlands and the UK. The majority of patients were recruited from primary care. Treatment satisfaction was assessed by the Diabetes Treatment Satisfaction Questionnaire (DTSQ, score 0-36; higher scores reflecting higher satisfaction). To determine which patient characteristics and laboratory values were independently associated with treatment satisfaction, a linear mixed model analysis was used.

PARTICIPANTS: In total, 1984 patients on insulin were analysed; the number of included patients per country ranged from 166 (the Netherlands) to 384 (Italy).

RESULTS: The mean DTSQ score was 28.50±7.52 and ranged from 25.93±6.57 (France) to 30.11±5.09 (the Netherlands). Higher DTSQ scores were associated with having received diabetes education (β 1.64, 95% CI 0.95 to 2.32), presence of macrovascular complications (β 0.76, 95% CI 0.21 to 1.31) and better health status (β 0.08 for every one unit increase on a 0-100 scale, 95% CI 0.07 to 0.10). Lower DTSQ scores were associated with more frequently perceived hyperglycaemia (β -0.32 for every 1 unit increase on a seven-point Likert scale, 95% CI -0.50 to -0.13), and higher glycated haemoglobin (β -0.52 for every percentage increase, 95% CI -0.75 to -0.29).

CONCLUSIONS: A number of factors including diabetes education, perceived and actual hyperglycaemia and macrovascular complications are associated with treatment satisfaction. Self-management education programmes should incorporate these factors for ongoing support in patients with T2DM.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere016180
JournalBMJ open [E]
Issue number7
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jul 2017


  • DTSQ
  • diabetes education
  • general diabetes
  • insulin
  • treatment satisfaction
  • type 2 diabetes mellitus


Dive into the research topics of 'What determines treatment satisfaction of patients with type 2 diabetes on insulin therapy? An observational study in eight European countries'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this