Uremic Solutes in Chronic Kidney Disease and Their Role in Progression

Jan A J G van den Brand, Henricus A M Mutsaers, Arjan D van Zuilen, Peter J Blankestijn, Petra H van den Broek, Frans G M Russel, Rosalinde Masereeuw, Jack F M Wetzels

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review


BACKGROUND: To date, over 150 possible uremic solutes have been listed, but their role in the progression of CKD is largely unknown. Here, the association between a selected panel of uremic solutes and progression in CKD patients was investigated.

METHODS: Patients from the MASTERPLAN study, a randomized controlled trial in CKD patients with a creatinine clearance between 20 and 70 ml/min per 1.73m2, were selected based on their rate of eGFR decline during the first five years of follow-up. They were categorized as rapid (decline >5 ml/min per year) or slow progressors. Concentrations of eleven uremic solutes were obtained at baseline and after one year of follow-up. Logistic regression was used to compare the odds for rapid to slow progression by uremic solute concentrations at baseline. Variability in uremic solute levels was assessed using scatter plots, and limits of variability were calculated.

RESULTS: In total, 40 rapidly and 40 slowly progressing patients were included. Uremic solutes were elevated in all patients compared to reference values for healthy persons. The serum levels of uremic solutes were not associated with rapid progression. Moreover, we observed substantial variability in solute levels over time.

CONCLUSIONS: Elevated concentrations of uremic solutes measured in this study did not explain differences in rate of eGFR decline in CKD patients, possibly due to lack of power as a result of the small sample size, substantial between patient variability, and variability in solute concentrations over time. The etiology of intra-individual variation in uremic solute levels remains to be elucidated.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere0168117
JournalPLoS ONE [E]
Issue number12
Publication statusPublished - 2016


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