The Relationship between Resilience Resources and Long-Term Deployment-Related PTSD Symptoms: A Longitudinal Study in Dutch Veterans

Wim Kamphuis*, Roos Delahaij, Jacco Duel, Elbert Geuze, Eric Vermetten

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

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Abstract

Veterans may report PTSD symptoms, years after their deployment. The aim of this study was to examine whether the presence of resilience resources before deployment, and the potential loss of these resources over time, are associated with the risk of PTSD symptoms five years post-deployment. The study focused on Dutch service members, deployed to Afghanistan or the Gulf of Aden. Pre-deployment resilience resources (i.e. coping self-efficacy, team cohesion, and perceived organizational support) were measured in 2012–2013 (n = 786). Five years after deployment a follow-up study (n = 148) measured the same resources as well as PTSD symptoms. Hierarchical regression analysis showed that fewer resources before deployment as well as a post-deployment decline in resources predicted PTSD. Low coping self-efficacy and low perceived organizational support before deployment as well as a decline in these resources over time were significantly related to PTSD symptoms five years post-deployment. This study therefore provides initial support for a relationship between a resource loss process and PTSD symptoms in veterans five years post-deployment.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)267-274
Number of pages8
JournalMilitary Behavioral Health
Volume9
Issue number3
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 12 Jan 2021

Keywords

  • deployment
  • Post-traumatic stress disorder
  • resilience
  • resources
  • trajectories
  • veterans

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