The effect of propofol on effective brain networks

D. van Blooijs*, S. Blok, G. J.M. Huiskamp, P. van Eijsden, H. G.E. Meijer, F. S.S. Leijten

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review


Objective: We compared the effective networks derived from Single Pulse Electrical Stimulation (SPES) in intracranial electrocorticography (ECoG) of awake epilepsy patients and while under general propofol-anesthesia to investigate the effect of propofol on these brain networks. Methods: We included nine patients who underwent ECoG for epilepsy surgery evaluation. We performed SPES when the patient was awake (SPES-clinical) and repeated this under propofol-anesthesia during the surgery in which the ECoG grids were removed (SPES-propofol). We detected the cortico-cortical evoked potentials (CCEPs) with an automatic detector. We constructed two effective networks derived from SPES-clinical and SPES-propofol. We compared three network measures (indegree, outdegree and betweenness centrality), the N1-peak-latency and amplitude of CCEPs between the two effective networks. Results: Fewer CCEPs were observed during SPES-propofol (median: 6.0, range: 0–29) compared to SPES-clinical (median: 10.0, range: 0–36). We found a significant correlation for the indegree, outdegree and betweenness centrality between SPES-clinical and SPES-propofol (respectively rs = 0.77, rs = 0.70, rs = 0.55, p < 0.001). The median N1-peak-latency increased from 22.0 ms during SPES-clinical to 26.4 ms during SPES-propofol. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that the number of effective network connections decreases, but network measures are only marginally affected. Significance: The primary network topology is preserved under propofol.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)222-230
Number of pages9
JournalClinical Neurophysiology
Early online date8 Mar 2024
Publication statusPublished - May 2024


  • Electrocorticography
  • Intra-operative
  • N1-peak-amplitude
  • N1-peak-latency
  • Network topology
  • Propofol
  • Single pulse electrical stimulation


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