Systemic and Local Medical or Surgical Therapies for Ear, Nose and/or Throat Manifestations in ANCA-Associated Vasculitis: A Systematic Literature Review

Roline M Krol*, Hilde H F Remmelts, Ruth Klaasen, Annelies Frima, E Christiaan Hagen, Digna M A Kamalski, Marloes W Heijstek, Julia Spierings

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

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Abstract

BACKGROUND: Ear, nose and throat (ENT) manifestations are common in patients with antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis (AAV), yet how to treat these manifestations remains controversial. Therefore, we systematically reviewed the literature on the efficacy of therapies on ENT manifestations in AAV.

METHODS: A systematic review was conducted in accordance with the PRISMA guidelines, searching Medline, Embase and Cochrane libraries, including clinical studies between January 2005 and January 2022, in adults with AAV and ENT involvement, reporting on the effects of local and systemic therapy. The critical appraisal was performed using tools provided by the Cochrane Library and the level of evidence (LoE) was scored according to the Oxford Centre for Evidence-based Medicine.

RESULTS: After screening 5609 identified studies, 136 full-text articles were assessed. Finally, 31 articles were included for critical appraisal and data-extraction. Nearly all studies (n = 29) were retrospective and scored low on LoE. The included studies evaluated local interventions (n = 11), glucocorticoids combined with conventional synthetic disease modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (csDMARDs) (n = 8), rituximab (n = 6), or mepolizumab (n = 6). Due to heterogeneity across studies meta-analysis was not performed. Four studies on mepolizumab for sinonasal symptoms (n = 92) showed response in 33-100% and relapse in 35%. Local therapy for subglottic stenosis was effective in 80-100% of patients in 11 studies (n = 157), but relapses were common (up to 83%). In five studies, hearing improvement was observed in 56-100%, with better outcomes when glucocorticoids were combined with csDMARDs compared to glucocorticoids only.

CONCLUSION: Response rates of ENT manifestations varied widely in studies and relapses were observed frequently. Heterogeneity among studies impaired comparison.

Original languageEnglish
Article number3173
Number of pages19
JournalJournal of Clinical medicine
Volume12
Issue number9
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - May 2023

Keywords

  • biologicals
  • EGPA
  • GPA
  • ANCA-associated vasculitis
  • csDMARDs
  • MPA

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