31P MRSI Studies in Patients with Cancer

Vitaly Khlebnikov, Jannie Wijnen, Wybe J M van der Kemp, DWJ Klomp

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review


Many years of research and development culminated in the establishment of phosphorous-31 (31P) magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) as a powerful tool in the characterization of cancer microenvironment. 31P MRS provides vital information on cancer bioenergetics, phospholipid biosynthesis, and pH, which latter is linked to tumor vasculature and oxygen consumption. Changes in cancer microenvironment during tumor progression or in response to therapy will result in changes in these biomarkers, which manifest itself as alterations in the localized 31P MR spectrum. Moreover, as the 31P MR spectra represent metabolism rather than morphology, changes in tumor microenvironment can be observed at an early stage. Thus, 31P MRS localized or imaged (MRSI) to the tumor is a powerful tool in the assessment of tumor therapy response. The combination of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with 31P MRSI is expected to improve cancer treatment by personalizing therapy and minimizing adverse effects, enabling better patient care. Here, we review state-of-the-art 31P MRSI as a noninvasive tool to assess unique relevant biomarkers from cancer in patients in vivo.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)319-368
JournalAnnual Reports on NMR Spectroscopy
Publication statusPublished - 2016


  • <sup>31</sup>P
  • Cancer
  • Magnetic resonance imaging
  • Magnetic resonance spectroscopy
  • Metabolism
  • Phosphorus
  • Therapy planning and monitoring


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