Structured robot-assisted surgery training curriculum for residents in Urology and impact on future surgical activity

A J W Beulens, L Vaartjes, S Tilli, W M Brinkman, P Umari, S Puliatti, E L Koldewijn, A J M Hendrikx, J P van Basten, J J G van Merriënboer, H G Van der Poel, C H Bangma, C Wagner

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review


To gain insight into the availability of training for robot assisted surgery (RAS) and the possibility to perform RAS during Dutch residency curriculum and to analyze the effects on surgical skills by the introduction of an advanced course in RAS for residents. A combination of a validated snap shot survey and a prospective cohort study. Structured advanced RAS training including virtual reality (VR) simulation, dry and wet lab facility at ORSI academy (Belgium). A snap-shot survey has been sent to all the residents and specialists in Urology graduated during the years 2017-2020 in Netherlands. Among residents, only last year residents (5th and 6th year) have been considered for the RAS training. Although most of the residents (88.2%) and young urologists (95%) were asked to follow a basic training or meet basic requirements before starting RAS, the requirements set by the educators were different from center to center. Some of them were required to attend only an online course on RAS, whereas others were asked to achieve threshold scores at VR simulator and participate in a standardized course at a training institute. The attendance to a structured advanced course in RAS showed a significant increase in surgical skills. Our study shows residents in urology are allowed to perform RAS during their residency though the criteria for starting RAS differ significantly amongst the teaching hospitals. To guarantee a basic level of skills and knowledge a structured, (multi-step) training and certification program for RAS should be implemented.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)497-510
Number of pages14
JournalJournal of Robotic Surgery
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - Aug 2021


  • Clinical Competence
  • Curriculum
  • Humans
  • Internship and Residency
  • Prospective Studies
  • Robotic Surgical Procedures/methods
  • Urology/education
  • Training
  • Education
  • Assessment
  • Robot-assisted surgery
  • Robotics


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