Review of Case Reports on Adverse Events Related to Pre-workout Supplements Containing Synephrine

M L L de Jonge, L C Kieviet, M Sierts, L B Egberink, M A G van der Heyden*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

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Abstract

The use of pre-workout supplements has become increasingly popular, including the use of supplements containing synephrine. Synephrine might stimulate weight loss and improve sports performance by its proposed adrenergic properties. However, with its increasing popularity, numerous cases of adverse events related to synephrine use have been reported. This study provides a comprehensive overview and analysis of current case reports related to the supplemental use of synephrine. The scientific literature on cases of adverse events related to synephrine intake was collected through August 2021 using Pubmed and Google Scholar and subsequently reviewed and analysed. We obtained 30 case reports describing a total of 35 patients who suffered from medical complaints following use of synephrine-containing supplements. The patients most often presented with chest pain, palpitations, syncope and dizziness. Commonly raised diagnoses were ischaemic heart disease, cardiac arrhythmias and cerebrovascular disease. Five patients were left disabled or remained on medication at last follow-up. We here show an association between the use of pre-workout supplements containing synephrine and adverse events, mainly related to the cardiovascular system. However, we cannot exclude a role of possible confounding factors such as caffeine. Thus, the use of pre-workout supplements containing synephrine may lead to serious adverse health events, and therefore, caution is needed.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1-9
Number of pages9
JournalCardiovascular Toxicology
Volume23
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2023

Keywords

  • Arrhythmias
  • Caffeine
  • Case reports
  • Ischaemic heart disease
  • Pre-workout
  • Synephrine

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