Quality over quantity; eosinophil activation status will deepen the insight into eosinophilic diseases

B Hilvering, L Koenderman

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Abstract

Eosinophil associated diseases have gained much attention recently because of the introduction of specific eosinophil targeted therapies. These diseases range from acute parasitic infections to chronic inflammatory diseases such as eosinophilic asthma. In eosinophilic asthma an increased eosinophil cell count in peripheral blood is the gold standard for determination of the pheno-/endotype and severity of disease. Despite a broad consensus there is concern on validity of this simple measurement, because the eosinophil compartment is far from homogenous. Multiple tissues harbour non-activated cells under homeostatic conditions and other tissues, normally devoid of eosinophils, become infested with these cells under inflammatory conditions. It will, therefore, be clear that eosinophils become differentially (pre)-activated at different tissue sites in homeostatic and inflammatory conditions. This complexity should be investigated in detail as it is 1) far from clear what the long-term side effects are that are caused by application of eosinophil targeted therapies in a “one size fits all” concept and 2) real-world data of eosinophil targeted therapies in asthma shows a broad variety in the treatment response. This review will focus on complex mechanisms of eosinophil activation in vivo to create a better view on the dynamics of the eosinophil compartment in health and disease both to prevent collateral damage caused by aberrant activation of eosinophils ánd to improve effectiveness of eosinophil targeted treatments.

Original languageEnglish
Article number107094
JournalRespiratory Medicine
Volume207
Early online date23 Dec 2022
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Feb 2023

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