Practical Recommendations for the Manipulation of Kinase Inhibitor Formulations to Age-Appropriate Dosage Forms

Emma C Bernsen, Valery J Hogenes, Bastiaan Nuijen, Lidwien M Hanff, Alwin D R Huitema, Meta H M Diekstra

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

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Over 75 kinase inhibitors (KIs) have been approved for the treatment of various cancers. KIs are orally administrated but mostly lack pediatric age-appropriate dosage forms or instructions for dose manipulation. This is highly problematic for clinical practice in pediatric oncology, as flexible oral formulations are essential to individually set dosages and to adjust it to a child's swallowability. Most KIs are poorly soluble, categorized in Biopharmaceutics Classification System (BCS) class II or IV, and improperly manipulating the KI formulation can alter pharmacokinetics and jeopardize KI drug safety and efficacy. Therefore, the goals of this review were to provide practical recommendations for manipulating the formulation of the 15 most frequently used KIs in pediatric oncology (i.e., bosutinib, cabozantinib, cobimetinib, crizotinib, dabrafenib, dasatinib, entrectinib, imatinib, larotrectinib, nilotinib, ponatinib, ruxolitinib, selumetinib, sunitinib and trametinib) based on available literature studies and fundamental drug characteristics and to establish a decision tool that supports decisions regarding formulation manipulation of solid oral dosages of KIs that have been or will be licensed (for adult and/or pediatric cancers) but are not included in this review.

Original languageEnglish
Article number2834
Issue number12
Publication statusPublished - 17 Dec 2022


  • bioequivalence
  • formulation
  • kinase inhibitor
  • manipulation
  • pediatric oncology


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