Pluripotent stem cell-derived kidney organoids: An in vivo-like in vitro technology

Frans Schutgens*, Marianne C. Verhaar, Maarten B. Rookmaaker

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


Organoids are self-organizing, multicellular structures that contain multiple cell types, represent organ structure and function, and can be used to model organ development, maintenance and repair ex vivo. Organoids, derived from embryonic stem cells (ESCs), induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) or adult stem cells, are cultured in extracellular matrix (ECM). Organoid cultures have been developed for multiple organs and for the kidney, pluripotent stem cell (PSCs) derived organoid technology has rapidly developed in the last three years. Here, we review available PSC differentiation protocols, focusing on the pluripotent stem cells to initiate the organoid culture, as well as on growth factors and ECM used to regulate differentiation and expansion. In addition, we will discuss the read out strategies to evaluate organoid phenotype and function. Finally, we will indicate how the choice of both culture parameters and read out strategy should be tailored to specific applications of the organoid culture.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)12-20
Number of pages9
JournalEuropean Journal of Pharmacology
Publication statusPublished - 5 Nov 2016


  • 3 Dimensional
  • In vitro
  • Kidney
  • Models
  • Organoids
  • Stem cell


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