Platinum exposure and cause-specific mortality among patients with testicular cancer

Harmke J. Groot, Flora E. van Leeuwen, Sjoukje Lubberts, Simon Horenblas, Ronald de Wit, J. Alfred Witjes, Gerard Groenewegen, Philip M. Poortmans, Maarten C. C. M. Hulshof, Otto W. M. Meijer, Igle J. de Jong, Hetty A. van den Berg, Tineke J. Smilde, Ben G. L. Vanneste, Maureen J. B. Aarts, Katarzyna Jozwiak, Alexandra W. van den Belt-Dusebout, Jourik A. Gietema, Michael Schaapveld

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Background: Although testicular cancer (TC) treatment has been associated with severe late morbidities, including second malignant neoplasms (SMNs) and ischemic heart disease (IHD), cause-specific excess mortality has been rarely studied among patients treated in the platinum era. Methods: In a large, multicenter cohort including 6042 patients with TC treated between 1976 and 2006, cause-specific mortality was compared with general population mortality rates. Associations with treatment were assessed with proportional hazards analysis. Results: With a median follow-up of 17.6 years, 800 patients died; 40.3% of these patients died because of TC. The cumulative mortality was 9.6% (95% confidence interval [CI], 8.5%-10.7%) 25 years after TC treatment. In comparison with general population mortality rates, patients with nonseminoma experienced 2.0 to 11.6 times elevated mortality from lung, stomach, pancreatic, rectal, and kidney cancers, soft-tissue sarcomas, and leukemia; 1.9-fold increased mortality (95% CI, 1.3-2.8) from IHD; and 3.9-fold increased mortality (95% CI, 1.5-8.4) from pneumonia. Seminoma patients experienced 2.5 to 4.6 times increased mortality from stomach, pancreatic, bladder cancer and leukemia. Radiotherapy and chemotherapy were associated with 2.1 (95% CI, 1.8-2.5) and 2.5 times higher SMN mortality (95% CI, 2.0-3.1), respectively, in comparison with the general population. In a multivariable analysis, patients treated with platinum-containing chemotherapy had a 2.5-fold increased hazard ratio (HR; 95% CI, 1.8-3.5) for SMN mortality in comparison with patients without platinum-containing chemotherapy. The HR for SMN mortality increased 0.29 (95% CI, 0.19-0.39) per 100 mg/m 2 platinum dose administered (P trend <.001). IHD mortality was increased 2.1-fold (95% CI, 1.5-4.2) after platinum-containing chemotherapy in comparison with patients without platinum exposure. Conclusions: Platinum-containing chemotherapy is associated with a dose-dependent increase in the risk of SMN mortality.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)628-639
Number of pages12
Issue number3
Early online date15 Nov 2019
Publication statusPublished - 1 Feb 2020


  • cause-specific mortality
  • cisplatin
  • epidemiology
  • platinum
  • survivorship
  • testicular cancer


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