Phenotypic expansion of Bosch-Boonstra-Schaaf optic atrophy syndrome and further evidence for genotype-phenotype correlations

Megan E Rech, John M McCarthy, Chun-An Chen, Jane C Edmond, Veeral S Shah, Daniëlle G M Bosch, Gerard T Berry, Linford Williams, Suneeta Madan-Khetarpal, Dmitriy Niyazov, Charles Shaw-Smith, Erin M Kovar, Philip J Lupo, Christian P Schaaf

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Bosch-Boonstra-Schaaf Optic Atrophy Syndrome (BBSOAS) is an autosomal dominant neurodevelopmental disorder caused by loss-of-function variants in NR2F1 and characterized by visual impairment, developmental delay, and intellectual disability. Here we report 18 new cases, provide additional clinical information for 9 previously reported individuals, and review an additional 27 published cases to present a total of 54 patients. Among these are 22 individuals with point mutations or in-frame deletions in the DNA-binding domain (DBD), and 32 individuals with other types of variants including whole-gene deletions, nonsense and frameshift variants, and point mutations outside the DBD. We corroborate previously described clinical characteristics including developmental delay, intellectual disability, autism spectrum disorder diagnoses/features thereof, cognitive/behavioral anomalies, hypotonia, feeding difficulties, abnormal brain MRI findings, and seizures. We also confirm a vision phenotype that includes optic nerve hypoplasia, optic atrophy, and cortical visual impairment. Additionally, we expand the vision phenotype to include alacrima and manifest latent nystagmus (fusional maldevelopment), and we broaden the behavioral phenotypic spectrum to include a love of music, an unusually good long-term memory, sleep difficulties, a high pain tolerance, and touch sensitivity. Furthermore, we provide additional evidence for genotype-phenotype correlations, specifically supporting a more severe phenotype associated with DBD variants.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1426-1437
Number of pages12
JournalAmerican Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2020


  • NR2F1
  • developmental delay
  • intellectual disability
  • optic atrophy


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