Nutritional management of the infant with chronic kidney disease stages 2–5 and on dialysis

Vanessa Shaw*, Caroline Anderson, An Desloovere, Larry A. Greenbaum, Dieter Haffner, Christina L. Nelms, Fabio Paglialonga, Nonnie Polderman, Leila Qizalbash, José Renken-Terhaerdt, Stella Stabouli, Jetta Tuokkola, Johan Vande Walle, Bradley A. Warady, Rukshana Shroff

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

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Abstract

The nutritional management of children with chronic kidney disease (CKD) is of prime importance in meeting the challenge of maintaining normal growth and development in this population. The objective of this review is to integrate the Pediatric Renal Nutrition Taskforce clinical practice recommendations for children with CKD stages 2–5 and on dialysis, as they relate to the infant from full term birth up to 1 year of age, for healthcare professionals, including dietitians, physicians, and nurses. It addresses nutritional assessment, energy and protein requirements, delivery of the nutritional prescription, and necessary dietary modifications in the case of abnormal serum levels of calcium, phosphate, and potassium. We focus on the particular nutritional needs of infants with CKD for whom dietary recommendations for energy and protein, based on body weight, are higher compared with children over 1 year of age in order to support both linear and brain growth, which are normally maximal in the first 6 months of life. Attention to nutrition during infancy is important given that growth is predominantly nutrition dependent in the infantile phase and the growth of infants is acutely impaired by disruption to their nutritional intake, particularly during the first 6 months. Inadequate nutritional intake can result in the failure to achieve full adult height potential and an increased risk for abnormal neurodevelopment. We strongly suggest that physicians work closely with pediatric renal dietitians to ensure that the infant with CKD receives the best possible nutritional management to optimize their growth and development.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)87-103
Number of pages17
JournalPediatric Nephrology
Volume38
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2023

Keywords

  • Chronic kidney disease
  • Energy
  • Growth
  • Infant
  • Nutrition
  • Phosphate
  • Protein

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