Normal Variants, Congenital, and Acquired Disorders

Rick R. Van Rijn, Jopje M. Ruskamp, Nicole L. Van Woerden, Rutger A.J. Nievelstein, Simon G.F. Robben*, Rob A.C. Bilo

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapterAcademicpeer-review


Diagnosing non-accidental injury is a challenging task. Missing the diagnosis may have fatal consequences for the child because no measures will be taken to prevent future injury. On the other hand, a wrongful diagnosis of non-accidental injury may have severe consequences for both caretakers as well as the child, e.g. judicial prosecution of the caretakers and placement of the child in foster care. This chapter deals with normal variants and diseases that may simulate non-accidental injury. Disease that are often mentioned in the differential diagnosis of non-accidental injury (e.g. rickets and osteogenesis imperfecta) will be discussed in more detail, whereas rare syndromes, congenital disorders and metabolic disorders, that are often reported as case reports, will be discussed in lesser detail.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationForensic Aspects of Paediatric Fractures
Subtitle of host publicationDifferentiating Accidental Trauma from Child Abuse, Second Edition
PublisherSpringer International Publishing
Number of pages54
ISBN (Electronic)9783031120411
ISBN (Print)9783031120404
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2023


  • Acquired disorders
  • Congenital disorders
  • Medication-related abnormalities
  • Normal variants
  • Oncological disorders
  • Osteogenesis imperfect
  • Other disorders
  • Rickets


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