No long-term effect of past Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia on pulmonary function in people with HIV

Patrick G.A. Oomen, Inez Bronsveld, Andy I.M. Hoepelman, Berend J. Van Welzen*, Tania Mudrikova

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

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Objective:To assess the impact of past Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PJP) on the pulmonary diffusion capacity in people with HIV (PWH) with a history of advanced immunodeficiency.Design:Prospective cross-sectional study.Methods:Adult PWH with past PJP >1 year ago were included as the study group. The control group consisted of PWH with a nadir CD4+ lymphocyte count <200 cells/mm3, matched by age, sex, smoking status and time since HIV diagnosis. All PWH completed a pulmonary function test (PFT) consisting of pre-bronchodilation spirometry, body plethysmography and single-breath carbon monoxide transfer factor (TLCO) measurement. TLCO, diffusion impairment (defined as a TLCO Z-score <-1.645), total lung capacity (TLC) and forced expiratory volume in one second/forced vital capacity (FEV1/FVC) Z-scores were assessed. Multivariable regression analyses were conducted with Z-scores and odds of diffusion impairment as outcomes.Results:PFTs of 102 participants were analyzed, 51 of whom had past PJP with a median of 10 years since PJP. Mean TLCO Z-score and diffusion impairment rate did not differ significantly between groups (P = 0.790; P = 0.650). Past PJP was not independently associated with TLCO Z-score [β = 0.14; 95% confidence interval (CI) -0.30-0.57], diffusion impairment (odds ratio 1.00; 95% CI 0.36-2.75) nor TLC or FEV1/FVC Z-scores, whereas current (vs. never) smoking was associated with more diffusion impairment and lower TLCO Z-scores.Conclusion:In our study, past PJP was not associated with long-term diffusion impairment. Our findings suggest that smoking plays a more important role in persistent pulmonary function impairment whereas PJP-related changes seem to be reversible.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1263-1267
Number of pages5
JournalAIDS (London, England)
Issue number8
Early online date10 Mar 2023
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jul 2023


  • diffusion capacity
  • HIV
  • Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia
  • pulmonary function
  • transfer factor for carbon monoxide


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