Neurodevelopmental Outcomes After Neonatal Surgery for Major Noncardiac Anomalies

Lisanne J. Stolwijk*, P. M A Lemmers, Marissa Harmsen, Floris Groenendaal, Linda S. De Vries, David C. Van Der Zee, Manon J N Benders, M. Y A Van Herwaarden-Lindeboom

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review


CONTEXT: Increasing concerns have been raised about the incidence of neurodevelopmental delay in children with noncardiac congenital anomalies (NCCA) requiring neonatal surgery.

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to determine the incidence and potential risk factors for developmental delay after neonatal surgery for major NCCA.

DATA SOURCES: A systematic search in PubMed, Embase and the Cochrane Library was performed through March 2015.

STUDY SELECTION: Original research articles on standardized cognitive or motor skills tests.

DATA EXTRACTION: Data on neurodevelopmental outcome, the Bayley Scales of Infant Development, and risk factors for delay were extracted.

RESULTS: In total, 23 eligible studies were included, reporting on 895 children. Meta-analysis was performed with data of 511 children, assessed by the Bayley Scales of Infant Development at 12 and 24 months of age. Delay in cognitive development was reported in a median of 23% (3%-56%). Meta-analysis showed a cognitive score of 0.5 SD below the population average (Mental Development Index 92 ± 13, mean ± SD; P < .001). Motor development was delayed in 25% (0%-77%). Meta-analysis showed a motor score of 0.6 SD below average (Psychomotor Development Index 91 ± 14; P < .001). Several of these studies report risk factors for psychomotor delay, including low birth weight, a higher number of congenital anomalies, duration of hospital admission, and repeated surgery.

LIMITATIONS: All data were retrieved from studies with small sample sizes and various congenital anomalies using different neurodevelopmental assessment tools.

CONCLUSIONS: Cognitive and motor developmental delay was found in 23% of patients with NCCA. Meta-analysis showed that the mean neurodevelopmental outcome scores were 0.5 SD below the normative score of the healthy population.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere20151728
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 1 Feb 2016


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