Monte Carlo simulations of out-of-field surface doses due to the electron streaming effect in orthogonal magnetic fields

Victor N. Malkov, Sara L. Hackett, Jochem W.H. Wolthaus, Bas W. Raaymakers, Bram Van Asselen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)


The out-of-field surface dose contribution due to backscattered or ejected electrons, focused by the magnetic field, is evaluated in this work. This electron streaming effect (ESE) can contribute to out-of-field skin doses in orthogonal magnetic resonance guided radiation therapy machines. Using the EGSnrc Monte Carlo package, a phantom is set-up along the central axis of an incident 10 [Formula: see text] 10 cm 2 7 MV FFF photon beam. The phantom exit or entry surface is inclined with respect to the magnetic field, and an out-of-field water panel is positioned 10 cm away from, and centered on, the isocenter. The doses from streaming backscattered or ejected electrons, for either a 0.35 T or 1.5 T magnetic field, are evaluated in the out-of-field water panel for surface inclines of 10, 30, and 45°. The magnetic field focuses electrons emitted from the inclined phantom. Dose distributions at the surface of the out-of-field water panel are sharper in the 1.5 T magnetic field as compared to 0.35 T. The maximum doses for the 0.35 T simulations are 23.2%, 37.8%, and 39.0% for the respective 10, 30, and 45° simulations. For 1.5 T, for the same angles, the maximum values are 17.1%, 29.8%, and 35.8%. Dose values drop to below 2% within the first 1 cm of the out-of-field water phantom. The phantom thickness is an important variable in the magnitude of the ESE dose. The ESE can produce large out-of-field skin doses and must be a consideration in treatment planning in the MRgRT work-flow. Treatments often include multiple beams which will serve to spread out the effect, and many beams, such as anterior-posterior, will reduce the skin dose due to the ESE. A 1 cm thick shielding of either a bolus placed on the patient or mounted on the present RF coils would greatly reduce the ESE dose contributions. Further exploration of the capabilities of treatment planning systems to screen for this effect is required.

Original languageEnglish
Article number115029
Pages (from-to)115029
JournalPhysics in medicine and biology
Issue number11
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2019


  • EGSnrc
  • magnetic field
  • Monte Carlo
  • MR-linac
  • MRgRT
  • out-of-field
  • surface dose


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