Implementation of a standard outcome set in perinatal care: a qualitative analysis of barriers and facilitators from all stakeholder perspectives

Anne L. Depla, Neeltje M. Crombag, Arie Franx, Mireille N. Bekker*

*Corresponding author for this work

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Background: To improve their quality, healthcare systems are increasingly focused on value delivered to patients. For perinatal care, the International Consortium for Health Outcomes Measurement (ICHOM) proposed a patient-centred outcome set with both clinical and patient-reported measures for pregnancy and childbirth (PCB set). This study aimed to identify factors that affect the implementation of the PCB set at the pre-implementation stage, using the consolidated framework for implementation research (CFIR). Methods: In this qualitative study, we conducted semi-structured interviews amongst a purposive sample of key stakeholders within an obstetric care network (OCN): 1) patients, 2) perinatal care professionals involved in the full cycle of perinatal care, and 3) policy makers, including hospital managers, administrative staff and health care insurers. While the CFIR guided data capture and structuring, thematic analysis revealed overarching themes that best reflected the barriers and facilitators from different stakeholder perspectives. Within these overarching themes, the CFIR constructs were maintained. Results: Interviews were conducted with 6 patients, 16 professionals and 5 policy makers. Thematic analysis supported by the CFIR framework identified four main themes: the instrument and its implementation process, use in individual patient care, use in quality improvement, and the context of the OCN. Important barriers included professional workload, data reliability, and interprofessional and interorganizational collaboration. Potential facilitators were the PCB set’s direct value in individual care, interprofessional feedback and education, and aligning with existing systems. Prominent variations between stakeholder groups included the expected patient burden, the level of use, transparency of outcomes and the degree of integrated care. Conclusions: This study clarified critical factors that affect successful implementation of the PCB set in perinatal care. Practice recommendations, suggested at multiple levels, can enable structural patient-centred care improvement and may unite stakeholders towards integrated birth care.

Original languageEnglish
Article number113
Pages (from-to)1-13
JournalBMC Health Services Research
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2021


  • Health outcomes
  • Implementation framework
  • Obstetrics
  • Outcome measures
  • Patient-centred outcomes
  • Patient-reported
  • Perinatal health
  • Pregnancy
  • Reproducibility of Results
  • Humans
  • Perinatal Care
  • Delivery of Health Care
  • Health Personnel
  • Female
  • Qualitative Research
  • Child
  • Infant, Newborn


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