Image-driven, model-based 3D abdominal motion estimation for MR-guided radiotherapy

Bjorn Stemkens, Rob H N Tijssen, Baudouin Denis de Senneville, JJW Lagendijk, CAT van den Berg

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review


Respiratory motion introduces substantial uncertainties in abdominal radiotherapy for which traditionally large margins are used. The MR-Linac will open up the opportunity to acquire high resolution MR images just prior to radiation and during treatment. However, volumetric MRI time series are not able to characterize 3D tumor and organ-at-risk motion with sufficient temporal resolution. In this study we propose a method to estimate 3D deformation vector fields (DVFs) with high spatial and temporal resolution based on fast 2D imaging and a subject-specific motion model based on respiratory correlated MRI. In a pre-beam phase, a retrospectively sorted 4D-MRI is acquired, from which the motion is parameterized using a principal component analysis. This motion model is used in combination with fast 2D cine-MR images, which are acquired during radiation, to generate full field-of-view 3D DVFs with a temporal resolution of 476 ms. The geometrical accuracies of the input data (4D-MRI and 2D multi-slice acquisitions) and the fitting procedure were determined using an MR-compatible motion phantom and found to be 1.0-1.5 mm on average. The framework was tested on seven healthy volunteers for both the pancreas and the kidney. The calculated motion was independently validated using one of the 2D slices, with an average error of 1.45 mm. The calculated 3D DVFs can be used retrospectively for treatment simulations, plan evaluations, or to determine the accumulated dose for both the tumor and organs-at-risk on a subject-specific basis in MR-guided radiotherapy.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)5335-5355
Number of pages21
JournalPhysics in Medicine and Biology
Issue number14
Publication statusPublished - 21 Jul 2016


  • respiratory motion model
  • 4D-MRI
  • MRI guidance
  • radiotherapy
  • motion characterization
  • motion phantom
  • MR-guided radiotherapy


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