High frequency oscillations associate with neuroinflammation in low-grade epilepsy associated tumors

Dongqing Sun*, Nicole E.C. van Klink, Anika Bongaarts, Willemiek E.J.M. Zweiphenning, Maryse A. van 't Klooster, Tineke A. Gebbink, Tom J. Snijders, Pieter van Eijsden, Pierre A.J.T. Robe, Eleonora Aronica, Maeike Zijlmans

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

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Objective: High frequency oscillations (HFOs) in intraoperative electrocorticography (ioECoG) are thought to be generated by hyperexcitable neurons. Inflammation may promote neuronal hyperexcitability. We investigated the relation between HFOs and inflammation in tumor-related epilepsy. Methods: We identified HFOs (ripples 80–250 Hz, fast ripples 250–500 Hz) in the preresection ioECoG of 32 patients with low-grade tumors. Localization of recorded HFOs was classified based on magnetic resonance imaging reconstructions: in tumor, in resected non-tumorous area and outside the resected area. We tested if the following inflammatory markers in the tumor or peritumoral tissue were related to HFOs: activated microglia, cluster of differentiation 3 (CD3)-positive T-cells, interleukin 1-beta (IL1β), toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and high mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1). Results: Tumors that generated ripples were infiltrated by more CD3-positive cells than tumors without ripples. Ripple rate outside the resected area was positively correlated with IL1β/TLR4/HMGB1 pathway activity in peritumoral area. These two areas did not directly overlap. Conclusions: Ripple rates may be associated with inflammatory processes. Significance: Our findings support that ripple generation and spread might be associated with synchronized fast firing of hyperexcitable neurons due to certain inflammatory processes. This pilot study provides arguments for further investigations in HFOs and inflammation.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)165-174
Number of pages10
JournalClinical Neurophysiology
Early online date18 Oct 2021
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2022


  • Epilepsy surgery
  • High frequency oscillations
  • Intraoperative electrocorticography
  • Low-grade tumor
  • Neuroinflammation


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