Four-dimensional flow CMR in tetralogy of fallot: current perspectives

Evangeline Gerdine Warmerdam, Rosalie Lucy Neijzen, Michiel Voskuil, Tim Leiner, Heynric B Grotenhuis

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Tetralogy of Fallot is the most common cyanotic congenital heart defect, accounting for 10% of all CHD. Despite most patients now surviving well into adulthood, morbidity and mortality rates continue to be high. Surgical and percutaneous pulmonary valve replacement are procedures that are performed to prevent long-term complications from occurring. Unfortunately, pulmonary valve replacement based on current CMR criteria does not prevent postoperative ventricular arrhythmia, heart failure, and sudden cardiac death. Thus, a more advanced and comprehensive hemodynamic evaluation is needed to better understand right ventricular (dys)function in tetralogy of Fallot patients and to optimize the timing of valve replacement. Recently, four-dimensional flow CMR has emerged as a promising and non-invasive imaging technique that can provide comprehensive quantitative evaluation of flow in an entire volume within the chest in a single imaging session. With velocity-encoding in all three spatial directions throughout the complete cardiac cycle, it can provide analysis of cardiac, pulmonary artery and aortic flow volumes, flow velocities, flow patterns, as well as more advanced hemodynamic parameters. Four-dimensional flow CMR could therefore provide insights into the complex hemodynamics of tetralogy of Fallot and could potentially provide novel criteria for pulmonary valve replacement in these patients. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of available research on four-dimensional flow CMR research in tetralogy of Fallot patients.

Original languageEnglish
Article number20210298
Pages (from-to)1-8
JournalThe British journal of radiology
Issue number1133
Early online date10 Feb 2022
Publication statusPublished - 1 May 2022


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