Feasibility and accuracy of dual-layer spectral detector computed tomography for quantification of gadolinium: a phantom study

Robbert W van Hamersvelt, Martin J Willemink, Pim A de Jong, Julien Milles, Alain Vlassenbroek, Arnold M R Schilham, Tim Leiner

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review


OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility and accuracy of dual-layer spectral detector CT (SDCT) for the quantification of clinically encountered gadolinium concentrations.

METHODS: The cardiac chamber of an anthropomorphic thoracic phantom was equipped with 14 tubular inserts containing different gadolinium concentrations, ranging from 0 to 26.3 mg/mL (0.0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.4, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 3.0, 4.0, 5.1, 10.6, 15.7, 20.7 and 26.3 mg/mL). Images were acquired using a novel 64-detector row SDCT system at 120 and 140 kVp. Acquisitions were repeated five times to assess reproducibility. Regions of interest (ROIs) were drawn on three slices per insert. A spectral plot was extracted for every ROI and mean attenuation profiles were fitted to known attenuation profiles of water and pure gadolinium using in-house-developed software to calculate gadolinium concentrations.

RESULTS: At both 120 and 140 kVp, excellent correlations between scan repetitions and true and measured gadolinium concentrations were found (R > 0.99, P < 0.001; ICCs > 0.99, CI 0.99-1.00). Relative mean measurement errors stayed below 10% down to 2.0 mg/mL true gadolinium concentration at 120 kVp and below 5% down to 1.0 mg/mL true gadolinium concentration at 140 kVp.

CONCLUSION: SDCT allows for accurate quantification of gadolinium at both 120 and 140 kVp. Lowest measurement errors were found for 140 kVp acquisitions.

KEY POINTS: • Gadolinium quantification may be useful in patients with contraindication to iodine. • Dual-layer spectral detector CT allows for overall accurate quantification of gadolinium. • Interscan variability of gadolinium quantification using SDCT material decomposition is excellent.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3677-3686
Number of pages10
JournalEuropean Radiology
Issue number9
Publication statusPublished - 2017


  • Contrast media
  • Dual-energy CT
  • Dual-layer spectral detector CT
  • Gadolinium
  • Material decomposition


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