Exploring Interprofessional Development of Entrustable Professional Activities For Pediatric Intensive Care Fellows: A Proof-of-Concept Study

Sabrina G van Keulen, Timo de Raad, Paulien Raymakers-Janssen, Olle Ten Cate, Marije P Hennus*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review


Phenomenon : Entrustable professional activities (EPAs) delineate major professional activities that an individual in a given specialty must be "entrusted" to perform, ultimately without supervision, to provide quality patient care. Until now, most EPA frameworks have been developed by professionals within the same specialty. As safe, effective, and sustainable health care ultimately depends on interprofessional collaboration, we hypothesized that members of interprofessional teams might have clear and possibly additional insight into which activities are essential to the professional work of a medical specialist. Approach : We recently employed a national modified Delphi study to develop and validate a set of EPAs for Dutch pediatric intensive care fellows. In this proof-of-concept study, we explored what pediatric intensive care physicians' non-physician team members (physician assistants, nurse practitioners, and nurses) constitute as essential professional activities for PICU physicians and how they regarded the newly developed set of nine EPAs. We compared their judgments with the PICU physicians' opinions. Findings : This study shows that non-physician team members share a mental model with physicians about which EPAs are indispensable for pediatric intensive care physicians. Despite this agreement however, descriptions of EPAs are not always clear for non-physician team members who have to work with them on a daily basis. Insights : Ambiguity as to what an EPA entails when qualifying a trainee can have implications for patient safety and trainees themselves. Input from non-physician team members may add to the clarity of EPA descriptions. This finding supports the involvement of non-physician team members in the developmental process of EPAs for (sub)specialty training programs.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)154-162
Number of pages9
JournalTeaching and Learning in Medicine
Issue number2
Early online date18 Apr 2023
Publication statusPublished - 2024


  • entrustable professional activities (epas)
  • Interprofessional assessment
  • non-physician team members
  • pediatric intensive care


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