Experimental validation of multi-fraction online adaptations in magnetic resonance guided radiotherapy

Madelon van den Dobbelsteen*, Sara L. Hackett, Bram van Asselen, Stijn Oolbekkink, Jochem W.H. Wolthaus, J. H.Wilfred de Vries, Bas W. Raaymakers

*Corresponding author for this work

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Background and purpose: Radiotherapy plan verification is generally performed on the reference plan based on the pre-treatment anatomy. However, the introduction of online adaptive treatments demands a new approach, as plans are created daily on different anatomies. The aim of this study was to experimentally validate the accuracy of total doses of multi-fraction plan adaptations in magnetic resonance imaging guided radiotherapy in a phantom study, isolated from the uncertainty of deformable image registration. Materials and methods: We experimentally verified the total dose, measured on external beam therapy 3 (EBT3) film, using a treatment with five online adapted fractions. Three series of experiments were performed, each focusing on a category of inter-fractional variation; translations, rotations and body modifications. Variations were introduced during each fraction and adapted plans were generated and irradiated. Single fraction doses and total doses over five online adapted fractions were investigated. Results: The online adapted measurements and calculations showed a good agreement for single fractions and multi-fraction treatments for the dose profiles, gamma passing rates, dose deviations and distances to agreement. The gamma passing rate using a 2%/2 mm criterion ranged from 99.2% to 99.5% for a threshold dose of 10% of the maximum dose (Dmax) and from 96.2% to 100% for a threshold dose of 90% of Dmax, for the total translations, rotations and body modifications. Conclusions: The total doses of multi-fraction treatments showed similar accuracies compared to single fraction treatments, indicating an accurate dosimetric outcome of a multi-fraction treatment in adaptive magnetic resonance imaging guided radiotherapy.

Original languageEnglish
Article number100507
Number of pages7
JournalPhysics and Imaging in Radiation Oncology
Publication statusPublished - Oct 2023


  • MR-linac
  • Multi-fraction treatment
  • Online adaptation
  • Quality assurance


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