European Association of Nuclear Medicine Focus 5: Consensus on Molecular Imaging and Theranostics in Prostate Cancer

Daniela Elena Oprea-Lager*, Steven MacLennan, Anders Bjartell, Alberto Briganti, Irene A. Burger, Igle de Jong, Maria De Santis, Uta Eberlein, Louise Emmett, Karim Fizazi, Silke Gillessen, Ken Herrmann, Sandra Heskamp, Andrei Iagaru, Barbara Alicja Jereczek-Fossa, Jolanta Kunikowska, Marnix Lam, Cristina Nanni, Joe M. O'Sullivan, Valeria PanebiancoEvis Sala, Mike Sathekge, Roman Sosnowski, Derya Tilki, Bertrand Tombal, Giorgio Treglia, Nina Tunariu, Jochen Walz, Derya Yakar, Rudi Dierckx, Oliver Sartor, Stefano Fanti

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

5 Downloads (Pure)


Background: In prostate cancer (PCa), questions remain on indications for prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) positron emission tomography (PET) imaging and PSMA radioligand therapy, integration of advanced imaging in nomogram-based decision-making, dosimetry, and development of new theranostic applications. Objective: We aimed to critically review developments in molecular hybrid imaging and systemic radioligand therapy, to reach a multidisciplinary consensus on the current state of the art in PCa. Design, setting, and participants: The results of a systematic literature search informed a two-round Delphi process with a panel of 28 PCa experts in medical or radiation oncology, urology, radiology, medical physics, and nuclear medicine. The results were discussed and ratified in a consensus meeting. Outcome measurements and statistical analysis: Forty-eight statements were scored on a Likert agreement scale and six as ranking options. Agreement statements were analysed using the RAND appropriateness method. Ranking statements were analysed using weighted summed scores. Results and limitations: After two Delphi rounds, there was consensus on 42/48 (87.5%) of the statements. The expert panel recommends PSMA PET to be used for staging the majority of patients with unfavourable intermediate and high risk, and for restaging of suspected recurrent PCa. There was consensus that oligometastatic disease should be defined as up to five metastases, even using advanced imaging modalities. The group agreed that [177Lu]Lu-PSMA should not be administered only after progression to cabazitaxel and that [223Ra]RaCl2 remains a valid therapeutic option in bone-only metastatic castration-resistant PCa. Uncertainty remains on various topics, including the need for concordant findings on both [18F]FDG and PSMA PET prior to [177Lu]Lu-PSMA therapy. Conclusions: There was a high proportion of agreement among a panel of experts on the use of molecular imaging and theranostics in PCa. Although consensus statements cannot replace high-certainty evidence, these can aid in the interpretation and dissemination of best practice from centres of excellence to the wider clinical community. Patient summary: There are situations when dealing with prostate cancer (PCa) where both the doctors who diagnose and track the disease development and response to treatment, and those who give treatments are unsure about what the best course of action is. Examples include what methods they should use to obtain images of the cancer and what to do when the cancer has returned or spread. We reviewed published research studies and provided a summary to a panel of experts in imaging and treating PCa. We also used the research summary to develop a questionnaire whereby we asked the experts to state whether or not they agreed with a list of statements. We used these results to provide guidance to other health care professionals on how best to image men with PCa and what treatments to give, when, and in what order, based on the information the images provide.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)49-60
Number of pages12
JournalEuropean Urology
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2024


  • Molecular hybrid imaging
  • Nuclear medicine
  • Prostate cancer
  • Systemic radioligand therapy
  • Theranostics


Dive into the research topics of 'European Association of Nuclear Medicine Focus 5: Consensus on Molecular Imaging and Theranostics in Prostate Cancer'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this