Do we assess urethral function adequately in LUTD and NLUTD? ICI-RS 2015

Jerzy B. Gajewski*, Peter F.W.M. Rosier, Sajjad Rahnama'i, Paul Abrams

*Corresponding author for this work

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review


    INTRODUCTION: Urethral function, as well as anatomy, play a significant role in voiding reflex and abnormalities in one or both contribute to the pathophysiology of Lower Urinary Tract Dysfunction (LUTD). We have several diagnostic tools to assess the urethral function or dysfunction but the question remains, are these adequate?. METHODS: This is a report of the proceedings of Think Tank P1: ‘Do we assess urethral function adequately in LUTD and NLUTD?’ from the annual International Consultation on Incontinence—Research Society, which took place September 22–24, 2014 in Bristol, UK. RESULTS: We have collected and discussed, as a committee, the evidence with regard to the urethra and the available relevant methods of testing urethral function, with the emphasis on female and male voiding dysfunction. We looked into previous research and clinical studies and compiled summaries of pertinent testing related to urethral function. The discussion has focused on clinical applications and the desirability of further development of functional tests and analyses in this field. CONCLUSIONS: There are limitations to most of the urethral function tests. Future perspectives and research should concentrate on further development of functional testing and imaging techniques with emphasis on standardization and clinical application of these tests. Neurourol. Urodynam. 36:935–942, 2017.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)935-942
    Number of pages8
    JournalNeurourology and Urodynamics
    Issue number4
    Publication statusPublished - Apr 2017


    • bladder outflow obstruction
    • dysfunctional voiding
    • lower urinary tract dysfunction
    • urethral anatomy
    • urethral function


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