Differenzierter einsatz der frequenzadaptiven stimulation

Translated title of the contribution: Differentiated use of rate responsive pacing

Mathias Meine*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review


Rate responsive pacing is useful to restore the failing cardiocirculatory regulation in patients with chronotropic incompetence. The activity sensor is a non-physiological sensor. Its sensor signal correlates more with the form of exercise than with the work rate. Physiologically sensor controlled systems are using a physiological signal that is closely correlated to the metabolic demand. The sensors are divided into " open-loop" and "closed-loop" systems depending on the implementation of the sensor into the cardiac regulation. The activity and the minute ventilation sensors are "open-loop" systems which do not get any feedback from the heart rate. Sensors which measure the QT interval, the inotropy, and the dromotropy are "closed-loop" systems because they get a feedback from the heart rate. In dual sensor systems the "cross checking" and "sensor blending" are useful to optimize the rate response. The several properties of the sensor and its technical condition (the kind and position of the pacing leads) have to be taken into account before selection of the rate responsive pacemaker system. In modern pacemaker devices the holter and exercise testing functions are useful to optimise the rate responsive programming. Algorithms for the automatic optimisation of the sensor parameters may individually improve the rate responsive pacemaker therapy.

Translated title of the contributionDifferentiated use of rate responsive pacing
Original languageGerman
Pages (from-to)177-187
Number of pages11
JournalHerzschrittmachertherapie & Elektrophysiologie
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2004


  • Chronotropic incompetence
  • Closed-loop
  • Open-loop
  • Pacemaker programming
  • Rate responsive pacing
  • Sensor control


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