Development and content validation of performance assessments for endoscopic third ventriculostomy

Gerben E. Breimer, Faizal A. Haji, Eelco W. Hoving, James M. Drake*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

6 Citations (Scopus)


Purpose: This study aims to develop and establish the content validity of multiple expert rating instruments to assess performance in endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV), collectively called the Neuro-Endoscopic Ventriculostomy Assessment Tool (NEVAT). Methods: The important aspects of ETV were identified through a review of current literature, ETV videos, and discussion with neurosurgeons, fellows, and residents. Three assessment measures were subsequently developed: a procedure-specific checklist (CL), a CL of surgical errors, and a global rating scale (GRS). Neurosurgeons from various countries, all identified as experts in ETV, were then invited to participate in a modified Delphi survey to establish the content validity of these instruments. In each Delphi round, experts rated their agreement including each procedural step, error, and GRS item in the respective instruments on a 5-point Likert scale. Results: Seventeen experts agreed to participate in the study and completed all Delphi rounds. After item generation, a total of 27 procedural CL items, 26 error CL items, and 9 GRS items were posed to Delphi panelists for rating. An additional 17 procedural CL items, 12 error CL items, and 1 GRS item were added by panelists. After three rounds, strong consensus (>80 % agreement) was achieved on 35 procedural CL items, 29 error CL items, and 10 GRS items. Moderate consensus (50–80 % agreement) was achieved on an additional 7 procedural CL items and 1 error CL item. The final procedural and error checklist contained 42 and 30 items, respectively (divided into setup, exposure, navigation, ventriculostomy, and closure). The final GRS contained 10 items. Conclusions: We have established the content validity of three ETV assessment measures by iterative consensus of an international expert panel. Each measure provides unique assessment information and thus can be used individually or in combination, depending on the characteristics of the learner and the purpose of the assessment. These instruments must now be evaluated in both the simulated and operative settings, to determine their construct validity and reliability. Ultimately, the measures contained in the NEVAT may prove suitable for formative assessment during ETV training and potentially as summative assessment measures during certification.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1247-1259
Number of pages13
JournalChild's Nervous System
Issue number8
Publication statusPublished - 27 Aug 2015


  • Clinical competence
  • Medical education
  • Neuroendoscopy
  • Performance assessment
  • Ventriculostomy


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