Delirium Detection Based on Monitoring of Blinks and Eye Movements

A.W. van der Kooi, M.L. Rots, G. Huiskamp, FAM Klijn, H.L. Koek, J Kluin, F. Leijten, A.J.C. Slooter

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

Abstract

Objective: To investigate whether delirious patients differ from nondelirious patients with regard to blinks and eye movements to explore opportunities for delirium detection. Methods: Using a single-center, observational study in a tertiary hospital in the Netherlands, we studied 28 delirious elderly and 28 age-and gender-matched (group level) nondelirious elderly, postoperative cardiac surgery patients. Patients were evaluated for delirium by a geriatrician, psychiatrist, or neurologist using the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition criteria. Blinks were automatically extracted from electro-oculograms and eye movements from electroencephalography recordings using independent component analysis. The number and duration of eye movements and blinks were compared between patients with and without delirium, based on the classification of the delirium experts described above. Results: During eyes-open registrations, delirious patients showed, compared with nondelirious patients, a significant decrease in the number of blinks per minute (median: 12 [interquartile range {IQR}: 5-18] versus 18 [IQR: 8-25], respectively; p = 0.02) and number of vertical eye movements per minute (median: 1 [IQR: 0-13] versus 15 [IQR: 2-54], respectively; p = 0.01) as well as an increase in the average duration of blinks (median: 0.5 [IQR: 0.36-0.95] seconds versus 0.34 [IQR: 0.23-0.53] seconds, respectively; p <0.01). During eyes-closed registrations, the average duration of horizontal eye movements was significantly increased in delirious patients compared with patients without delirium (median: 0.41 [IQR: 0.15-0.75] seconds versus 0.08 [IQR: 0.06-0.22] seconds, respectively; p <0.01). Conclusion: Spontaneous eye movements and particularly blinks appear to be affected in delirious patients, which holds promise for delirium detection.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1575-1582
Number of pages8
JournalThe American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
Volume22
Issue number12
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2014

Keywords

  • Delirium
  • eye movements
  • electroencephalogram
  • electro-oculogram
  • INTENSIVE-CARE-UNIT
  • CONFUSION ASSESSMENT METHOD
  • CRITICALLY-ILL PATIENTS
  • POSTOPERATIVE DELIRIUM
  • ACTIVITY PATTERNS
  • CAM-ICU
  • METAANALYSIS
  • VALIDATION
  • MULTICENTER
  • RELIABILITY

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