Cross-sectional health centre and community-based evaluation of the impact of pneumococcal and malaria vaccination on antibiotic prescription and usage, febrile illness and antimicrobial resistance in young children in Malawi: the IVAR study protocol

David Singleton*, Ana Ibarz-Pavon, Todd D. Swarthout, Farouck Bonomali, Jennifer Cornick, Akuzike Kalizang'oma, Noah Ntiza, Comfort Brown, Raphael Chipatala, Wongani Nyangulu, James Chirombo, Gift Kawalazira, Henry Chibowa, Charles Mwansambo, Kenneth Mphatso Maleta, Neil French, Robert S. Heyderman

*Corresponding author for this work

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Abstract

Introduction Vaccination is a potentially critical component of efforts to arrest development and dissemination of antimicrobial resistance (AMR), though little is known about vaccination impact within low-income and middle-income countries. This study will evaluate the impact of vaccination on reducing carriage prevalence of resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae and extended spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella species. We will leverage two large ongoing cluster-randomised vaccine evaluations in Malawi assessing; first, adding a booster dose to the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) schedule, and second, introduction of the RTS,S/AS01 malaria vaccine. Methods and analysis Six cross-sectional surveys will be implemented within primary healthcare centres (n=3000 users of outpatient facilities per survey) and their local communities (n=700 healthy children per survey): three surveys in Blantyre district (PCV13 component) and three surveys in Mangochi district (RTS,S/AS01 component). We will evaluate antibiotic prescription practices and AMR carriage in children ≤3 years. For the PCV13 component, surveys will be conducted 9, 18 and 33 months following a 3+0 to 2+1 schedule change. For the RTS,S/AS01 component, surveys will be conducted 32, 44 and 56 months post-RTS,S/AS01 introduction. Six health centres in each study component will be randomly selected for study inclusion. Between intervention arms, the primary outcome will be the difference in penicillin non-susceptibility prevalence among S. pneumoniae nasopharyngeal carriage isolates in healthy children. The study is powered to detect an absolute change of 13 percentage points (ie, 35% vs 22% penicillin non-susceptibility). Ethics and dissemination This study has been approved by the Kamuzu University of Health Sciences (Ref: P01-21-3249), University College London (Ref: 18331/002) and University of Liverpool (Ref: 9908) Research Ethics Committees. Parental/caregiver verbal or written informed consent will be obtained prior to inclusion or recruitment in the health centre-based and community-based activities, respectively. Results will be disseminated via the Malawi Ministry of Health, WHO, peer-reviewed publications and conference presentations.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere069560
JournalBMJ Open
Volume13
Issue number5
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 12 May 2023

Keywords

  • BACTERIOLOGY
  • Clinical audit
  • EPIDEMIOLOGY
  • IMMUNOLOGY
  • INFECTIOUS DISEASES
  • Protocols & guidelines

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