Chemokine levels in subretinal fluid obtained during scleral buckling surgery after rhegmatogenous retinal detachment

Lukas J A G Ricker, Aize Kijlstra, Wilco de Jager, Albert T A Liem, Fred Hendrikse, Ellen C La Heij

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review


PURPOSE: Interleukin (IL)-6, a multifunctional cytokine with regulatory functions in wound healing, and several chemokines have been implicated in the pathogenesis of proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR) after rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD). The exact role of these chemokines, their correlation with IL-6 after primary RRD, and their association with the future development of PVR are not yet known.

METHODS: A multiplex immunoassay was used to determine levels of 15 different chemokines and IL-6 in subretinal fluid samples obtained during scleral buckling surgery for primary RRD. Samples from patients with preoperative uveitis, preoperative trauma, or preoperative vitreous hemorrhage were excluded. Patients who developed a redetachment due to postsurgical PVR within 2.5 months (n = 21) were compared with control subjects who had an uncomplicated retinal detachment during the overall follow-up period (n = 54). Control subjects were matched for sex, age, and storage time.

RESULTS: Levels of IL-6 (P = 0.001), MIF (P = 0.016), CCL2 (P = 0.041), CCL11 (P = 0.012), CCL17 (P = 0.003), CCL18 (P = 0.007), CCL19 (P < 0.001), CCL22 (P < 0.001), CXCL8 (P = 0.027), CXCL9 (P = 0.007), and CXCL10 (P = 0.002) were significantly higher in patients who developed postoperative PVR after primary RRD than in patients with uncomplicated retinal detachment. A significant positive correlation was observed between IL-6 and both CCL22 (r = 0.538; P < 0.0001) and CXCL8 (r = 0.645; P < 0.0001).

CONCLUSIONS: Various chemokines and IL-6 are upregulated in patients in whom fibrotic membranes develop after primary RRD repair and may therefore be involved in the future development of postoperative PVR.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)4143-50
Number of pages8
JournalInvestigative ophthalmology & visual science
Issue number8
Publication statusPublished - Aug 2010


  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Body Fluids
  • Chemokines
  • Exudates and Transudates
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Immunoassay
  • Interleukin-6
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Postoperative Complications
  • Recurrence
  • Retinal Detachment
  • Scleral Buckling
  • Up-Regulation
  • Vitreoretinopathy, Proliferative
  • Journal Article
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't


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