Cardiovascular risk management after reproductive and pregnancy-related disorders: A Dutch multidisciplinary evidence-based guideline

Karst Y. Heida, Michiel L. Bots, Christianne J M De Groot, Frederique M. Van Dunné, Nurah M. Hammoud, Annemiek Hoek, Joop S E Laven, Angela H E M Maas, Jeanine E. Roeters Van Lennep, Birgitta K. Velthuis, Arie Franx*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review


Background In the past decades evidence has accumulated that women with reproductive and pregnancy-related disorders are at increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease (CVD) in the future. Up to now there is no standardised follow-up of these women becausee guidelines on cardiovascular risk management for this group are lacking. However, early identification of high-risk populations followed by prevention and treatment of CVD risk factors has the potential to reduce CVD incidence. Therefore, the Dutch Society of Obstetrics and Gynaecology initiated a multidisciplinary working group to develop a guideline for cardiovascular risk management after reproductive and pregnancy-related disorders. Methods The guideline addresses the cardiovascular risk consequences of gestational hypertension, preeclampsia, preterm delivery, small-for-gestational-age infant, recurrent miscarriage, polycystic ovary syndrome and premature ovarian insufficiency. The best available evidence on these topics was captured by systematic review. Recommendations for clinical practice were formulated based on the evidence and consensus of expert opinion. The Dutch societies of gynaecologists, cardiologists, vascular internists, radiologists and general practitioners reviewed the guideline to ensure support for implementation in clinical practice. Results For all reproductive and pregnancy-related disorders a moderate increased relative risk was found for overall CVD, except for preeclampsia (relative risk 2.15, 95% confidence interval 1.76-2.61). Conclusion Based on the current available evidence, follow-up is only recommended for women with a history of preeclampsia. For all reproductive and pregnancy-related disorders optimisation of modifiable cardiovascular risk factors is recommended to reduce the risk of future CVD.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1863-1879
Number of pages17
JournalEuropean Journal of Preventive Cardiology
Issue number17
Publication statusPublished - 1 Nov 2016


  • cardiovascular disease
  • polycystic ovary syndrome
  • preeclampsia
  • Pregnancy
  • premature ovarian insufficiency
  • preterm delivery
  • prevention
  • recurrent miscarriage
  • risk assessment
  • small-for-gestational-age


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