Association Between Vitamin K and the Metabolic Syndrome: A 10-Year Follow-Up Study in Adults

Veerle Dam, Geertje W. Dalmeijer, Cees Vermeer, Nadja E Drummen, Marjo H Knapen, Yvonne T van der Schouw, Joline W Beulens

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review


CONTEXT: The Metabolic Syndrome (MetS) is a cluster of metabolic abnormalities and is associated with increased risk of diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Phylloquinone, menaquinones, and vitamin K status are associated with several components of MetS, but the association with MetS has hardly been studied to date.

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to examine whether the intake and/or status of vitamin K is associated with MetS and its components.

DESIGN: This study comprised two cohorts, one of 402 women and one of 400 men (age 40-80 y). At followup 625 participants were still alive and willing to participate. Data were analyzed both cross sectionally and longitudinally with Poisson and linear regression adjusted for multiple confounders. Baseline phylloquinone/menaquinone intakes were measured with a validated food frequency questionnaire and vitamin K status with serum desphospho-uncarborxylated matrix-Gla protein level.

RESULTS: At baseline 270 (34.5%) participants had MetS and 171 (35.7%) at followup. Cross sectionally, high menaquinones intakes were associated (P(trend) = .08) with a lower prevalence of MetS with a prevalence ratio (PR) of 0.74 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.54-1.03) for the highest vs the lowest tertile. At followup, the highest tertiles of menaquinones intake (PR = 0.62; 95% CI, 0.40-0.95) and vitamin K status (PR = 0.57; 95% CI, 0.38-0.87) were associated (P(trend) = .01) with a lower occurrence of MetS. These associations were mainly driven by relations with lower triacylglycerol concentrations for menaquinones and lower waist circumference for vitamin K status. Phylloquinone intake was not associated with MetS prevalence.

CONCLUSIONS: This study shows that a high intake of menaquinones and high vitamin K status are associated with a lower occurrence of MetS.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2472-2479
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2015


  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Diet Surveys
  • Eating
  • Female
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Humans
  • Longitudinal Studies
  • Male
  • Metabolic Syndrome X
  • Middle Aged
  • Risk Factors
  • Vitamin K
  • Vitamin K 1
  • Vitamin K 2


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