A Novel Tool for Computing Deliverable Doses in Dynamic MLC Tracking Treatments

M Fast, C Kamerling, S Crijns, M Menten, S Nill, B Raaymakers, U Oelfke

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PURPOSE: In tracked dynamic multi-leaf collimator (MLC) treatments, segments are continuously adapted to the target centroid motion in beams-eye-view. On-the-fly segment adaptation, however, potentially induces dosimetric errors due to the finite MLC leaf width and non-rigid target motion. In this study, we outline a novel tool for computing the 4d dose of lung SBRT plans delivered with MLC tracking.

METHODS: The following automated workflow was developed: A) centroid tracking, where the initial segments are morphed to each 4dCT phase based on the beams-eye-view GTV shift (followed by a dose calculation on each phase); B) re-optimized tracking, in which all morphed initial plans from (A) are further optimised ("warm-started") in each 4dCT phase using the initial optimisation parameters but phase-specific volume definitions. Finally, both dose sets are accumulated to the reference phase using deformable image registration. Initial plans were generated according to the RTOG-1021 guideline (54Gy, 3-Fx, equidistant 9-beam IMRT) on the peak-exhale (reference) phase of a phase-binned 4dCT. Treatment planning and delivery simulations were performed in RayStation (research v4.6) using our in-house segment-morphing algorithm, which directly links to RayStation through a native C++ interface.

RESULTS: Computing the tracking plans and 4d dose distributions via the in-house interface takes 5 and 8 minutes respectively for centroid and re-optimized tracking. For a sample lung SBRT patient with 14mm peak-to-peak motion in sup-inf direction, mainly perpendicular leaf motion (0-collimator) resulted in small dose changes for PTV-D95 (-13cGy) and GTV-D98 (+18cGy) for the centroid tracking case compared to the initial plan. Modest reductions of OAR doses (e.g. spinal cord D2: -11cGy) were achieved in the idealized tracking case.

CONCLUSION: This study presents an automated "1-click" workflow for computing deliverable MLC tracking doses in RayStation. Adding a non-deliverable re-optimized tracking scenario is expected to help quantify plan robustness for more challenging patients with anatomy deformations. We acknowledge support of the MLC tracking research from Elekta AB. MFF is supported by Cancer Research UK under Programme C33589/A19908. Research at ICR is also supported by Cancer Research UK under Programme C33589/A19727 and NHS funding to the NIHR Biomedical Research Centre at RMH and ICR.

Original languageEnglish
Article numberTH-AB-202-03
Pages (from-to)3857
JournalMedical Physics
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2016


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