A compact and mobile hybrid C-arm scanner for simultaneous nuclear and fluoroscopic image guidance

Martijn M.A. Dietze*, Britt Kunnen, Frank Brontsema, Pascal Ramaekers, Casper Beijst, Maryam Afifah, Arthur J.A.T. Braat, Marnix G.E.H. Lam, Hugo W.A.M. de Jong

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

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Purpose: This study evaluates the performance of a mobile and compact hybrid C-arm scanner (referred to as IXSI) that is capable of simultaneous acquisition of 2D fluoroscopic and nuclear projections and 3D image reconstruction in the intervention room. Results: The impact of slightly misaligning the IXSI modalities (in an off-focus geometry) was investigated for the reduction of the fluoroscopic and nuclear interference. The 2D and 3D nuclear image quality of IXSI was compared with a clinical SPECT/CT scanner by determining the spatial resolution and sensitivity of point sources and by performing a quantitative analysis of the reconstructed NEMA image quality phantom. The 2D and 3D fluoroscopic image of IXSI was compared with a clinical CBCT scanner by visualizing the Fluorad A+D image quality phantom and by visualizing a reconstructed liver nodule phantom. Finally, the feasibility of dynamic simultaneous nuclear and fluoroscopic imaging was demonstrated by injecting an anthropomorphic phantom with a mixture of iodinated contrast and 99mTc. Conclusion: Due to the divergent innovative hybrid design of IXSI, concessions were made to the nuclear and fluoroscopic image qualities. Nevertheless, IXSI realizes unique image guidance that may be beneficial for several types of procedures. Key Points: • IXSI can perform time-resolved planar (2D) simultaneous fluoroscopic and nuclear imaging. • IXSI can perform SPECT/CBCT imaging (3D) inside the intervention room.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)517-523
Number of pages7
JournalEuropean Radiology
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2022


  • Cone-beam CT
  • Fluoroscopy
  • Hybrid imaging
  • Scintigraphy


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